woensdag 13 maart 2013
Amazing Dead Sea Discovery: Messiah would die, rise on third day
April 2012 “Some Christians will find it shocking... while others will be comforted by the idea of it being a traditional part of Judaism,” suggests Daniel Boyarin, a professor of Talmudic culture at the University of California at Berkeley, talking about an archeological discovery, found close to the Dead Sea. Unlike the Dead Sea Scrolls, however, this ancient text is written in ink onto a stone tablet, and gives evidence of an ancient Jewish belief that the Messiah would die and come back to life on the third day.
Like the Dead Sea Scrolls, which were found in the mid twentieth century, the tablet continues to create debate long after its discovery over fifteen years ago. However, it wasn’t until quite recently that Jewish scholars have been examining the stone more earnestly, and causing a ruckus with their controversial findings that point to Yeshua fitting the bill of existing Jewish Messianic expectations of his time.
The tablet is thought to be from the first century BC, shortly before Yeshua came in the flesh. Dealing with themes of apocalyse and end times prophecy, based on Daniel, Haggai and Zechariah, it has come to be known as “Gabriel’s Vision” or “Gabriel’s Revelation” because it is written in the first person in the name of Gabriel. The 87 lines of text, divided into two columns, are not all easy to read, and some of the words are simply impossible to make out. However, more experts have in recent years devoted time and attention to unravelling the mystery and discovering not only what is written, but also what it meant.
Two of the key experts involved are Ada Yardeni, an Israeli scholar and world authority on ancient Semitic languages, and another textual scholar called Israel Knohl from Hebrew University. Both agree that the text talks about the idea of a Messiah figure coming back to life. Yardeni writes, “After reviewing the document, I came to the conclusion that the reading suggested by Professor Knohl for the third word of line 80—HAYE “live”—seems to be the only plausible reading of that word. Thus, the first five words of this line should be translated as: “In three days live.”
This is an extraordinary discovery, because it shows us that this idea of resurrection on the third day existed in Jewish thinking even before Yeshua. Indeed, we can see that Jonah’s experience in the belly of the whale and Esther’s three-day fast in the face of annihation give us two “types” of this death and resurrection theme within the three day period, but this tablet shows us that these thoughts in connection with the Messiah; the “Prince of Princes”.
There are two ideas of messiah mentioned - one from the line of David, who was traditionally expected win a political and military victory, and one would would be a son of Joseph, who would suffer and die. Although these ideas predate Yeshua, the idea of a messianic son of Joseph continued long after Jesus. Indeed, expectations that he would come from the north Galilee region and lead his disciples down to Jerusalem, and that he would suffer and die, were strongly held even in the sixteenth century.
Again, it is important to note that the mystery is not entirely solved. There are many details that remain unknown, and words that still have not been decyphered, but it is wonderful that many top academics are having to contemplate the possibility that the death and third day resurrection of Yeshua, son of Joseph, from the line of David, might not be as alien to Judaism as they thought.